Latin For You

Teaching and translating ancient Latin since 1986

Catholic Church still cares about Latin

Very interesting article in the B.C. Catholic News (written by Hannah Brockhaus from Vatican City) with the above title and discussing the relevance that Latin possesses for the 21st Century Catholic Church.  Some of the points made were:

  • "Latin is the key of an immense treasure of wisdom and knowledge".  This holds true, not only for ecclesiastical wisdom, but for 12 centuries of literature, history and culture that Rome created from its founding in 753 BC.
  • Latin is universal, since it is not the native tongue of any one nation, and so is beyond any narrow political strictures.
  • Latin is immutable, since it is no longer spoken and does not undergo the natural linguistic shift.
  • Latin is "beautiful and elegant" (Pope St. John XXIII).  How refreshing for someone to argue on the basis of esthetics and not ruthless utilitarianism.

Benedict XVI's Resignation Speech

Pope Benedict XVI has created a precedence and perhaps opened the door a crack to other precedent-setting moves, when he announced that he was stepping down from the Throne of St. Peter, due to failing health.  The 85 year old pontiff who is in his 8th year as leader of the Catholic Church stated that he felt his weak health were not equal to the task of leading the Church through the current times.  I have provided the Latin text along with my own translation into Engslish.  I would also like to indulge in a couple of observations:

+ Benedict chose to give this speech in Latin.  Perhaps he was testing his listeners - only those who know Latin will immediately understand.  If that is the case, the press got a score of 1.  More likely, Benedict, whose recent modu poropio spoke about the importance of Latin, wished to emphasize that importance by matching his language to the occasion.  He also avoids regional favouritism or regional interpretation (the general English translation is not quite perfect).

+ There is lots of talk about the precedents as far as previous popes who have resigned.  The number of precendents are actually even fewer than people realize.  Not counting 'anti-popes' (individuals who somehow took the name Supreme Pontiff, but who are not recognized as having held the post), there, at most, 7 previous popes who have left papacy before their death.  Wikipedia has this list.  But most of this group of seven do not really represent a precedent.

St. Pontianus (235) resigned when he was sent into exile to Sardinia by the Roman emperor Diocletian, so that someone else could be chosen to serve as Bishop of Rome.  So this was under duress (being sent to Sardinia was considered a death sentence and so Pontian probably considered himself as dead (he would die within a year of his exile.

St. Marcellinus was compelled by the Roman emperor Diocletian to hand over sacred Christian texts and was either deposed for this action or abdicated (we're not sure which).  This occured sometime in mid-303.  St. Marcellinus died just over one year later.  Ironically his successor was not chosen until 306.

Liberius is thought to have resigned in 365, one year before his death.  His reign occured during a great struggle in the church between two groups who had very different interpretations of the Creed.  In 355 Liberius was banished, again leaving the See of Rome vacant.  Eventually St. Felix was installed and it is thought that Liberius' resignation may be a later attempt to explain and legitimize Felix' papacy.  There is significant doubt whether Liberius actually did resign.  Even if did, that resignation, like St. Pontian's, was under duress.

Benedict IX (and for that matter Gregory VI) lived in a time so very different, that it really is a different world.  We have to remember that in the 11th century the pope was also a temporal ruler (of about 1/3 of Italy) and so there were serious political aspects to the position.  Benedict IX actually reigned on three separate occasions.  At one of his resignations, he handed over the papacy to his gad-father (Gregory VI).  At the Council of Sutri both were deposed (although Gregory may have abdicated as unworthy; he did die one year later) and Clement II was installed as Supreme Pontiff.  His death 8 months later led to the popular re-instalment of Benedict.  Benedict was deposed one year later.  Unlike the previous popes who resigned, Benedict lived for another 8 years.  For at least one year after deposing, he claimed that he was the true pontiff.  Benedict's resignation and two subsequent deposings were more to do with European politics than any spiritual concerns.

St. Celestine V (1294) was frankly duped into resigning.  He was extremely reluctant to take on such a temporal position, in fear of his soul.  He was also an octagenarian.  He was elected after a 27 month stalemate among the 12 cardinals and was a compromise candidate.  He approached Cardinal Benedetto Caetani, asking if there were precedent to resign.  The good cardinal falsely told him there was and Celestine gratefully laid down the keys after a reign of only 5 months.  His successor was chosen rather more quickly.  Two weeks after his resignation, Cardinal Caetani was Pope Boniface VIII.

The most recent resignation is almost 600 years ago and is also a very different story.  Gregory XII was pope during the Great Schism, when there were two popes for several decades; one based in Rome and one in Avignon.  At the time of the Council of Constance there were three poeple who called themselves pope (one in Avignon, Gregory and a third pope, elected by disaffected cardinals from both camps).  The council deposed the two 'anti-popes' and accepted the resignaiton of Gregory.  This resignation was offered to help end the schism, which it did.  And so, in a time when there was a dire emergency in the church, the pope laid down his office.  You can read another version of the above which was published in the B.C. Catholic News March 2013 right here.

What we have here is completely new.  The pope of his own free will and knowledge, without any external threats or extra-ordinary issues, has laid down his office.  This has never happened.  It certainly sets a precedent for papal resignation.  Does it open the door to other precedent setting moves?  Women in the clergy?  Married priests?  Contraception?  Who knows?  But the conversation will happen - just listen.

Fratres carissimi
Non solum propter tres canonizationes ad hoc Consistorium vos convocavi, sed etiam ut vobis decisionem magni momenti pro Ecclesiae vita communicem. Conscientia mea iterum atque iterum coram Deo explorata ad cognitionem certam perveni vires meas ingravescente aetate non iam aptas esse ad munus Petrinum aeque administrandum.
Bene conscius sum hoc munus secundum suam essentiam spiritualem non solum agendo et loquendo exsequi debere, sed non minus patiendo et orando. Attamen in mundo nostri temporis rapidis mutationibus subiecto et quaestionibus magni ponderis pro vita fidei perturbato ad navem Sancti Petri gubernandam et ad annuntiandum Evangelium etiam vigor quidam corporis et animae necessarius est, qui ultimis mensibus in me modo tali minuitur, ut incapacitatem meam ad ministerium mihi commissum bene administrandum agnoscere debeam. Quapropter bene conscius ponderis huius actus plena libertate declaro me ministerio Episcopi Romae, Successoris Sancti Petri, mihi per manus Cardinalium die 19 aprilis MMV commisso* renuntiare ita ut a die 28 februarii MMXIII, hora 20, sedes Romae, sedes Sancti Petri vacet et Conclave ad eligendum novum Summum Pontificem ab his quibus competit convocandum esse.
Fratres carissimi, ex toto corde gratias ago vobis pro omni amore et labore, quo mecum pondus ministerii mei portastis et veniam peto pro omnibus defectibus meis. Nunc autem Sanctam Dei Ecclesiam curae Summi eius Pastoris, Domini nostri Iesu Christi confidimus sanctamque eius Matrem Mariam imploramus, ut patribus Cardinalibus in eligendo novo Summo Pontifice materna sua bonitate assistat. Quod ad me attinet etiam in futuro vita orationi dedicata Sanctae Ecclesiae Dei toto ex corde servire velim.
Ex Aedibus Vaticanis, die 10 mensis februarii MMXIII


If you watch the youtube video of Benedict XVI's resignation speeech (without benefit of English voice-over), you will hear that he says 'commissum'.  The official transcript of the speech, published in the Vatican's website, is as written above - 'commissum'.  It is reminiscent of the difference between Cicero's delivered speeches and the versions he published afterwards.

 Dearest brothers;

I have called you to this consistory, not only for the three canonizations, but also to communicate to you a decision of great importance for the life of the Church.  Having     again and again explored my conscience before the sight of God, I have come to the      cetain realization that, due to advancing age, my strength is no longer suited to looking   after the Petrine task properly.  I am well aware that this task, because of its essential spirituality, must be pursued not only with doing and speaking, but no less with        enduring and praying.  However, in world of our times, subject to rapid change and     shaken by questions of great weight for the life of the faithful, strength of body, even      and of mind are more necessary to steer the ship of Saint Peter and proclaim the Gospel.  This strength in me in recent months has dwindled to such an extent that I must acknowledge my inability to looking after the ministry entrusted to me.  As a result and    fully aware of the weight of this act, with full freedom I declare that I am renouncing     myself from the ministry of the Bishopric of Rome, the Successor of Saint Peter,        entrusted to me by the hands of the Cardinals on the 19th day of April, 2005 so that the    seat of Rome, the seat of Saint Peter will be vacant from the 28th day of February, 2013     and that a Conclave is to be called to choose a new Supreme Pontiff from these men          who are capable.

Dearest brothers, I thank you with all my heart for all your love and work, by which you carried with me the weight of my ministry and I seek your forgiveness for all my defects.  Now, however, we entrust the Holy Church of God to the care of its Supreme Pastor, our Lord, Jesus Christ and we implore holy Mary, his Mother to assist, with her maternal goodwill the father Cardinals in the choosing of a new Supreme Pontiff.  As for myself in future I would like to serve the Holy Church of God with all my heart with a life           dedicated to prayer (speech?)

From the Vatican, the 10th day of February, 2013

Benedict PP XVI



You can read the official Latin and English transcripts on the Vatican's website.

Benedict XVI's modu proprio - Latina Lingua

Pope Benedict has released an Apostolic Letter entitle Latina Lingua, which is a call to all Catholics to become better acquainted with the language through which so much of the church's teachings and prayers are conveyed, the Latin language.  He has also established a Pontifical Academy for Latin, whose mission is "the promotion and appreciation of the Latin language and culture".  Their first aim is "to promote the knowledge and study of Latin".  This is music to my ears and I look forward to Catholic institutions of learning taking up this call and developing Latin programs for their students.  I also noted that the pope not only talked about ecclesiatic Latin, but also referenced "the broader world of culture" and the "patrimony of the Latin civilization".  Here is the Latin text and an English version.  To learn more about this topic, you can visit any one of a number of sites, including this blog.


1. The Latin language has always been held in very high esteem by the Catholic Church and by the Roman Pontiffs. They have assiduously encouraged the knowledge and dissemination of Latin, adopting it as the Church’s language, capable of passing on the Gospel message throughout the world. This is authoritatively stated by the Apostolic Constitution Veterum Sapientia of my Predecessor, Blessed John XXIII.

Indeed the Church has spoken and prayed in the languages of all peoples since Pentecost. Nevertheless, the Christian communities of the early centuries made frequent use of Greek and Latin, languages of universal communication in the world in which they lived and through which the newness of Christ’s word encountered the heritage of the Roman-Hellenistic culture.

After the fall of the Roman Empire of the West, the Church of Rome not only continued to use Latin but, in a certain way, made herself its custodian and champion in both the theological and liturgical sectors as well as in formation and in the transmission of knowledge.

2. In our time too, knowledge of the Latin language and culture is proving to be more necessary than ever for the study of the sources, which, among others, numerous ecclesiastical disciplines draw from, such as, for example, theology, liturgy, patristics and canon law, as the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council teaches (cf. Decree Optatam Totius, n. 13).

In addition, precisely in order to highlight the Church’s universal character, the liturgical books of the Roman Rite, the most important documents of the Papal Magisterium and the most solemn official Acts of the Roman Pontiffs are written in this language in their authentic form.

3. Yet in today’s culture, the danger of an increasingly superficial knowledge of Latin may be noted in the context of the widespread weakening of humanistic studies. This is also a risk in the context of the philosophical and theological studies of future priests. Moreover in our own world, in which science and technology play such an important role, there is a renewed interest in the Latin culture and language and not only on those continents whose culture is rooted in the Greco-Roman heritage. This attention seems all the more meaningful since it not only involves academic and institutional sectors but also concerns young people and scholars from very different nations and traditions.

4. It therefore appears urgently necessary to support the commitment to a greater knowledge and more competent use of Latin, both in the ecclesial context and in the broader world of culture. In order to give relevance and resonance to this undertaking the use of didactic methods in keeping with the new conditions and the promotion of a network of relations between academic institutions and scholars is particularly appropriate so as to make the most of the rich and multiform patrimony of the Latin civilization.

To contribute to attaining these goals following in the footsteps of my venerable Predecessors, today, with this Motu Proprio, I establish the Pontifical Academy for Latin, under the Pontifical Council for Culture. It is governed by a President assisted by a Secretary, who are appointed by me, and by an Academic Council.

The Latinitas Foundation, erected by Paul VI with the Chirograph Romani Sermonis of 30 June 1976 is hereby replaced.

I order that this Apostolic Letter in the form of a Motu Proprio, with which I approve the attached Statutes ad experimentum, for five years, be published in L’Osservatore Romano.

Given at St Peter’s in Rome on 10 November 2012, the Memorial of St Leo the Great, the eighth year of my Pontificate.

De Pontificia Academia Latinitatis condenda

1. Latina Lingua permagni ab Ecclesia Catholica Romanisque Pontificibus usque est aestimata, quandoquidem ipsorum propria habita est lingua, qui eandem cognoscendam et diffundendam assidue curaverunt, cum Evangelii nuntium in universum orbem transmittere valeret, quemadmodum in Constitutione Apostolica Veterum sapientia Decessor Noster beatus Ioannes XXIII iure meritoque edixit.

Enimvero inde a Pentecoste omnibus hominum linguis locuta et precata est Ecclesia. Attamen christianae communitates primorum saeculorum linguam Graecam Latinamque affatim usurpaverunt, cum illis locis in quibus morabantur universalia essent communicationis instrumenta, quorum ope Christi Verbi novitas hereditati obviam ivit Romani et Hellenistici cultus.

Romano Imperio occidentali exstincto, Romana Ecclesia non modo lingua Latina uti perrexit, verum etiam quodammodo custos eiusdem et fautrix fuit, sive in Theologiae ac Liturgiae, sive in institutionis et scientiae transmittendae provincia.

2. Nostris quoque temporibus Latinae linguae et cultus cognitio perquam est necessaria ad fontes vestigandos ex quibus complures disciplinae ceteroqui hauriunt, exempli gratia Theologia, Liturgia, Patrologia et Ius Canonicum, quemadmodum Concilium Oecumenicum Vaticanum II docet (cfr Decretum de Institutione sacerdotali, Optatam totius, 13).

In hac praeterea lingua, ut universalis Ecclesiae natura pateat, typica forma sunt scripti liturgici libri Romani Ritus, praestantiora Magisterii pontificii Documenta necnon sollemniora Romanorum Pontificum officialia Acta.

3. In hodierno tamen cultu, humanarum litterarum extenuatis studiis, periculum adest levioris linguae Latinae cognitionis, quae in curriculis philosophicis theologicisque futurorum presbyterorum quoque animadvertitur. Sed contra, in nostro ipso orbe, in quo scientia ac technologia praecipuum obtinent locum, renovatum culturae et linguae Latinae studium invenitur, non illis in Continentibus dumtaxat quae proprias culturales radices in patrimonio Graeco et Romano habent. Id diligentius est animadvertendum eo quod non modo academiarum provincia et institutionum implicatur, sed ad iuvenes inquisitoresque etiam attinet, qui ex diversissimis Nationibus et traditionibus proveniunt.

4. Quapropter necessitas instare videtur ut linguae Latinae altius cognoscendae eiusque congruenter utendae fulciatur cura, sive in ecclesiali sive in patentiore cultus campo. Ut hic nisus extollatur et evulgetur, consentaneum prorsus est docendi rationes adhibere aptas ad novas condiciones et provehere item necessitudines inter Academicas institutiones et inquisitores, ut copiosum ac multiforme Latini cultus patrimonium efferatur.

Ad haec proposita assequenda, Decessorum Nostrorum semitas calcantes, hasce per Litteras Apostolicas Motu Proprio datas hodie Pontificiam Academiam Latinitatis condimus, quae Pontificio Consilio de Cultura erit obnoxia. Eam regit Praeses, quem Secretarius iuvat et ii a Nobis nominantur, dum Consilium Academicum illis auxilium fert.

Opus Fundatum Latinitas, quod Pauli PP. VI chirographo Romani Sermonis die XXX mensis Iunii anno MCMLXXVI est constitutum, exstinguitur.

Decernimus ut hae Litterae Apostolicae Motu Proprio datae, quibus ad experimentum in quinquennium adnexum Statutum comprobamus, per editionem in actis diurnis “L’Osservatore Romano” evulgentur.

Datum Romae, apud Sanctum Petrum, die X mensis Novembris, in memoria Sancti Leonis Magni Papae, anno MMXII, Pontificatus Nostri octavo.

An up-dated translation of the Roman Missal

By now most people are familiar with the resurgence of the Tridentine Mass in the Catholic Church.  This particular version of the mass was developed in 1570 by Pope Pius in response to the Council of Trent (whose Latin name is Tridentum, hence the name of the mass).  It is written in Latin and its revival has created a modest revival in the Latin language.

On a related topic, the English version of the Latin mass as it is used in Canada has now been changed and the pews of Catholic churches have been well supplied with  cards to help the faithful make the transition to the new English version, which departs from the decades long version with which most of us are familiar.  For those Cathlolics (and other interested individuals) I have provided below a quick list of those changes.  There are three columns: the original Latin, the old version and the new version.  I have also added some commentary of my own (in blue) which discusses the substance of the changes and their significance.

Generally, the new version is more accurate than the version everyone has become used to for the past decades.  Having had a look at the original Latin (Roman Missal 2002 editio typica), the 1973 English version and the 2011 English version, there are a number of interesting points.

Before proceeding, the reader should be aware that the comments below are not coming from a Catholic (although my daughters are being brought up Catholic), nor from a Protestant (although that is my own religious background), but from a Latinist.  I am simply looking at the text and translation from an academic and pragmatic point of view.

Original Latin (2002)

Old Version (1973)

New Version (2011)

Dominus vobiscum et cum spiritu tuo

The Lord be with you and also with you

The Lord be with you and with your spirit

CredoWe believeI believe


These two changes are fairly light and simply make the English more accurate.  The first is a tough one for the person in the pew because the 1973 English version rolls off the tongue effortlessly after almost 4 decades and it will be some time before the 2011 version can make that claim.  Saying 'we believe' was considered more inclusive and, perhaps, ecumenical.  The switch to 'I believe' is not only accurate, but also reminds us that this is a personal statement of belief from each individual.

 Original Latin (2002)

Old Version (1973)

 New Version (2011)

 Confiteor Deo ominpotenti, et vobis, fratres, quia peccavimus nimis

 I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brother and sisters, that I have sinned through my own fault

 I confess to almighty God, and to you, my brothers and sisters, that I have greatly sinned


The first part of the Confiteor deserves some comments.  First, the original Latin only says fratres (brothers).  To be more inclusive, the 1973 version said 'brothers and sisters' and this has not been changed.  Curious that the Latin has not been amended.  The fact that quia (because) is translated with 'that' is not especially noteworthy, since the English conveys the thought behind the Latin, but I'm not sure the same can be said for nimisNimis means 'too much' ('through my fault' would be mea culpa [which occurs later in the mass]).  On the other hand, 'greatly' would be a translation for magnopere, valde, or (best of all) maxime.  It is fairly easy to understand why nimis is not translated literally.  I have sinned too much implies that there is an amount of sin that is just right, or even that there can be too little sin.  So the real question this passage raises for me is, 'Why does the Latin say nimis?


Original Latin (2002)

Old Version (1973)

New Version (2011)

mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa

through my fault, through my fault, through my most grievous fault


This line from the Confiteor was completely omitted in the 1973, but re-instated in the 2011 version.  The ascending tricolon of mea culpa reaches a climax with 'my most grievous fault', although that is not exactly what the Latin says.  'maxima' merely conveys the magnitude of the fault.  The fault is 'very great', or 'most great'.  'grievous' characterizes the fault in a way that 'maxima' does not.  Thus, something extra has been added into the English which is not there in the Latin.

Original Latin (2002)

Old Version (1973)

New Version (2011)

Priest: Miserere nostri, Domine.

People: Qui peccavimus tibi.

Priest: Ostende nobis, Domine, misercordiam tuam.

Priest: Lord, we have sinned against you: Lord have mercy.

People: Lord, have mercy.

Priest: Lord, show us your mercy and love.

Priest: Have mercy on us, Oh Lord.

People: For we have sinned against you.

Priest: Show us, O Lord, your mercy.

There are a couple of relatively minor points that I would describe as icebergs - tips of what could represent a more profound approach to translating Latin. The 1973 version changed who said what from the Latin. Essentially, the priest is given the content that the Latin gives to the Priest and People. The people simply repeat the last line of the priest. The 2011 English divides up the lines just as the Latin does, but there are a couple of small anomalies.

The English says 'For we have sinned' but the Latin says 'We who have sinned'. The word qui is really just a relative pronoun and does not imply cause and effect (which is often denoted by the subjunctive mood).

The other point which catches my eye is the placement of 'Lord' in the final line. Leaving aside the fact that 'and love' was added in 1973 and removed in 2011, the vocative 'Lord' was placed at the beginning of the line in 1973 and then moved so that the English reflected the original Latin word order. This is one case where the 1973 version is actually the better translation. In Latin a vocative is always placed in the middle of a sentence, as it is in the line 'Ostende nobis, Domine, misercordiam tuam'. However, in English a vocative is always put at the beginning or end of the sentence, so as not to interrupt the grammatical flow. In 1973 they created a translation to recognize this reality. In 2011 they shifted to a translation which is bound to the Latin word order. The 2011 version is not wrong, but it does (somewhat unnecessarily) bind itself to the Latin word order. This is not usually a good sign in Latin students and I'm not sure it is a good sign here either. It threatens to create a wooden or awkward English version.


Original Latin (2002)

    Old Version (1973)        

   New Version (2011)   

in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis

peace to his people on earth

on earth peace to people of good will
Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adoramus te.  Glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex caelestis, Deus Pater omnipotens.Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God and Father, we worship you, we give you thanks, we praise you for your glory.We praise you, we bless you, we adore you, we glorify you, we give you thanks for your great glory, Lord God, heavenly King, O God, almighy father.
Fili Unigenite . . . Filius Patrisonly Son of the Father . . . xonly Begotten Son . . . Son of the Father
qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram.  Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere are seated at the right hand of the Father, receive our prayeryou take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer . . . have mercy on us.

The Gloria is the subject of a few changes, most of which are fairly salubrious.  The first is the most significant and comes from Luke 2.14 (and is quoted by Linus in a Charlie Brown Christmas).  Most of us have heard the line 'Peace on earth, goodwill toward men.'  For those of us who enjoy nostalgia, it's tough to acknowledge the fact that the English here is wrong.  The Latin does not ask for goodwill toward men.  It asks for peace on earth for men who have good will.  To go back to the original, the Greek text of St. Luke has the word 'eudokia', which means good will or benevolence and is translated into the Latin 'bonae voluntatis'.  What really matters is that in both the Latin and the Greek, the words for 'good will' are in the genitive (genitive of characteristic, to be exact) and describe what type of men are to enjoy peace.

The next and largest section under consideration has undergone changes that are mainly word order.  In 1973 the address was placed at the beginning of the prayer and the prayer was shortened.  The 2011 version provides a full English translation of the Latin text and adheres more closely to the Latin word order.  The 1973 version did possess a certain style; the address of God was placed in the more expected beginning of the prayer and there are a tricolon of verbs: worship, give thanks, praise.  The style of the Latin is rather different and it is now more closely adhered to.

The next is a short one; two ways of expressing the Christ and God were telescoped into one phrase.  The two phrases, which are not even together in the original Latin, have been separated to give each its proper emphasis.

The final section was shortened, by removing the second 'you take away the sins of the world' and placing 'receive our prayer' after 'you are seated at the right hand of the Father'.  Again, the 2011 version follows the Latin much more closely.  One interesting point: qui is consistently translated in both 1973 and 2011 as 'you', rather than 'who'.  More literally qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram is 'you, who take away the sins of the world, receive our prayer.'  The relative pronoun qui is not translated into the English largely because Latin uses the relative far more than we do in English and the use of the relative would sound quite awkward without adding anything to the meaning.



I have to conclude with the comment that I have been surprised and disappointed to read that the English version is necessary and obviously so.  As a Latinist who sees and understands the value in learning Latin, I don't see that much is gained in creating an English version at all.  One of the principle arguments for maintaining the Latin version for Mass is that it emphasizes the universality of the Church (unlike all spoken languages, Latin is not associated with any one nation and so cariies with it no bias or preconceptions).  It also would allow for Catholics to attend Mass anywhere in the world and the missal would be the same.  The counter argument ran that this was useless, since no one could understand what the Latin said and so there was only a universality of ignorance.  Both arguments miss the point.  If people were learning a bit of Latin, they would understand exactly what the original editio typica said.  Learning Latin is not that hard and, regardless of what so many like to say, it is NOT IRRELEVANT, unless being an intelligent human being is irrelevant.  All schools should at least offer their students the chance to study Latin and I would expect Catholic schools to be leading the way, since they have a greater motivation to teach Latin to the faithful.

Recent Additions to the Latin Lexicon (courtesy of the Vatican)

Yes, even though it may be a dead language (technically), there are constant additions being made to the Latin lexicon as items and concepts, never dreamt of by the Romans come into existence.  The Vatican regularly updates the Latin lexicon and here is a sampling from their website.  It is even more useful, if you happen to speak Italian, since this is an Italian/Latin lexicon.

Opus Fundatum in Civitate Vaticana

apparavit Cletus Pavanetto

abat-jourumbráculum lámpadis
abuliavoluntatis deféctio
abusointemperántia; immódicus usus
accidente (incidente)casus (stradale: viárius)
accontoantecessus (-us)
acculturazionealienae culturae indúctio
acqua di coloniaodoramentum Coloniense
acqua gassataaqua gásio medicata
acqua mineraleaqua medicata
acqua potabileaqua salūbri potu
acqua santaaqua lustralis
acribíaexquisīta diligéntia
acrobatafunámbulus (-i)
adamiticoadamiānus (-a, -um)
adesivotáenia glutinōsa
aerodromoaërinávium portus
aeromezzoaërium vehículum
aeronautaaërius viator
aeronaveaëria navis
afaáëris crassitudo
affittacamerecubiculorum locator
africanistaAfricanarum rerum studiosus
agente bancariocurator nummulárius
agente d'affaricurator negotiorum
agenzia viaggiitínerum procuratrix (-trīcis)
aguzzinocruciator (-oris)
albero di Natalearbor natalícia
albicoccamalum Armeníacum
alla buonapingui Minervā
allegatoadiunctum (folium)
alpenstockmontanus báculus
alpinistaoríbates; móntium lustrator
altruistaaliorum studiosus
ambientelocus (-i); res externa; circumiacéntia (-ium)
ambiente artisticoartíficum ámbitus
ambiente domesticodomésticus convictus
amnesiamemóriae amíssio
antipastogustátio; promulsis (-idis)
apartheidsegregátio nigritarum
a prioriex antecapto iudício
assegnomandatum nummárium
astronavenavis sideralis
attaccapannivéstium sustentáculum
autoambulanzaárcera automatária
aziendadomus effectória
baby-sitterinfantária (-ae)
bagarinotesserarum vénditor inīquus
bailammeclamor ingens
ballottaggiosuffrágium decretórium
bambùharūndo Índica
banconotacharta nummária
banda armataglobus armatorum
bandistasymphoníacus (-i)
barthermopólium (-ii)
barmantabernae potóriae minister
basket-ballfollis canistrīque ludus
bazarvariarum mércium empórium
best sellerliber máxime divénditus
bibitabibítio (-onis); pótio; potus
bidetovāta pelvis
bigliettotéssera viária
binocolotelescópium geminātum
bisteccacaro costālis assa
bitteramara pótio
blitzincúrsio fulmínea
blue-jeansbracae línteae caerúleae
boccaleúrceus (-i)
bombapyróbolus; pyróbolum
bombolavas gasárium
borgatasubúrbium (-ii)
borsacrumīna (crumēna); pera; marsúpium
borsaiolosector zonárius
brigatisti rossibrigatōres rubri
budinoscriblīta Anglica
buontemponehomo festivive
cachemirelanítium Casmiriense
caffècafaeum; pótio cafaeária; taberna cafaeária
caffettieracucumella cafaeária
calcolatricemachínula calculatória
camera da pranzocenáculum
campingcampus tentórius
campo profughicampus exceptórius
campo sportivocampus pedeludiárius
cassataplacenta Sícula
caucciùresīna elástica
caveausubterránea cella argentária
cedratapótio cítrea
cementolithocolla (-ae)
centro elettronicoelectrónica sedes
check-uptotīus córporis inspéctio
cherryválida pótio cerásina
ciabattadoméstica crépida
cioccolatosocolāta; socolatae pótio
clacsonsonorus autocinēti index
clichéchalcotýpia (-ae)
clubconsociátio; otiosum sodalícium
colfministra doméstica
computerinstrumentum computatórium
concorrenzaaemulátio mercatória
confettosácchari amýgdalum
confetturafrúctuum liquāmen
contabilecalculator (-oris)
costume da bagnosubligáculum balneare
cow boyarmentárius
crampocontráctio (-onis)
cronistachronógraphus (-i)
day-hospitalvaletudinárium diurnum
dancingludus saltatórius
dattilografomachínulae scriptóriae peritus
deltaplanistaaërinavis velíferae gubernator
democraticitàíndoles democrática
denatalitàprolis decrementum
deodorantefoetōris delumentum
dépliant turisticochártula periegética
depressioneánimi imminútio
deragliamentohamaxóstichi exorbitátio
dessertsecunda mensa; prándii appendix
detonatoreapparatus displosīvus
diktatimperiōsum edictum
discotecataberna discothecária
disoccupatoinvīte otiosus
dolciumecrustum; crústulum; placenta
drinkpótio alcohólica
drogamedicamentum stupefactīvum
drogheriataberna aromatária
duchessaducīssa; ducis uxor
éclatantmiríficus (-a, -um)
eclissideféctio (lunae vel solis)
edelweisleontopódium alpinum
effervescentebullans; fervens
egoismonímius amor sui
egoistasui cómmodi studiosus
elettricitàeléctrica vis
eliografiasolis descríptio
eliporto aëriportus helicopterorum
enfant gâpuer indulgéntiā depravatus
enotecavinorum taberna
eroinaheroīnum (-i)
esibizionismoostentátio (-onis)
esordientetiro (-ōnis)
espritingénii vigor
fabbricadomus fabricatória; ergastérium
factotumómnium negotiorum curator
fansadmiratores studiosíssimi
faraonagallina Numídica
ferry-boatnavis traiectória
fiammiferoflammífera ássula
fiaschetteriaoenopólium (-ii)
fifty-fiftyaequíssima partítio
filantropiahumánitas (-atis)
filmotecapellicularum cinematographicarum theca
filoviafunālis traiéctio
flirtamor levis
forbiceforfex (-icis)
fornello elettricofornácula eléctrica
fractunícula caudata
franaterrae lapsus
frigoriferoarmárium frigidárium
frittataovorum intrīta
full timemunus pleni témporis
gabinettolatrīna (-ae); ministrorum consílium
gaffeáctio incauta et incállida
galantuomoínteger vir
gangpraedatória manus
gangstergregalis latro
gasgásium (-ii)
gassosagasiosa pótio
gâteauplacenta farta
gelatogélida sorbítio
ghiacciaioglaciata moles
giaccatunícula manicata; iacca, iaccilla
ginpótio iunípera
giornalediárium; ephémeris; acta diurna
gitanohamaxóbius (Hispanus); Aegyptanus
goalretis violátio
golfthorax láneus manicatus
gonna, gonnellacástula; gunna, gunnella
graffitofigura gráphio exarata
grappastillatícius sucus vitígenus
grovieracáseus forātus Helvéticus
gulagcampus captivis custodiendis
habitatnaturalis sedes
habituéfrequentator (-oris)
hag (caffé)cafaeária pótio sine cafaeīno
hallamplum deversórii átrium
hangarreceptáculum aërinávium
hidalgonóbilis Hispanus
high lifeélegans vita; láuta vivendi rátio
hinterlandintérior régio
hostessvectorum adiūtrix; aëria ministratrix
hot pantsbrevíssimae bracae femíneae
humourfestívitas; urbani sales
humusfundamentum (rei spiritualis, culturalis, socialis)
idealitàexemplaris dígnitas
idiotahomo hebes
igienevaletúdinis tuendae ars
improvvisatoextemporalis (-e)
inaugurazionededicátio (-ōnis)
indirizzoinscríptio cursuālis
ingegneredoctor machinárius
insalatalactūca; acetária; ólera; herbae
interesseánimi atténtio
intervistacollóquium percontatīvum
intossicazionevenenōsa condício
iterpetitionis cursus
IVAfiscāle prétii additamentum
jazziazensis música
jeepautocinētum locis iniquis aptum
jetaërināvis celérrima
jumbocapacíssima aërināvis
kamikazevoluntárius sui interemptor
karatéoppugnátio inermis Iapónica
ladyÁnglica múlier conspícua
lambruscoacre vinum Aemilianum
lamponefragum Idaeum; rubus Idaeus
laserinstrumentum laséricum
lavagnatábula litterária
leaderfactionis princeps
leitmotivmelos perductórium
levavectis (-is)
libreriataberna librária
limonatapótio cítrea
locomotivacurrus tractórius; máchina vectória
luna parkhorti públici oblectatórii
maccheronepasta tubulata
macedoniapoma conditīva
macelleriataberna carnária
magnetofonomáchina echóica
malariamalus aër; morbus palūstris
managerprocurator (artíficum, cantōrum, ...)
mangomangífera Índica
marajàÍndicus régulus
marketmultigéneris taberna
marsalavinum Lilybaetānum
maxigonnamáximum hypozónium
mazurcasaltátio Polónica
meetingconventus (-us)
megalomaniaeffrenāta glóriae appeténtia
melaranciamalum Sinense dulce
menuescarum index
mercato neromercatūra clandestīna
merlotvinum rubrum Burdigalense
minestronesorbítio compósita
minigolfpilamálleus minūtus
minigonnatunícula mínima
mistràpótio anisāta
mokafaba Mocana; pótio cafaeária Mocana; máchina cafaeária
mondinaoryzae runcatrix
montacarichianábathrum onerárium
monte di pietàdomus pigneratícia
moteldeversórium autocinéticum
motorettabirótula automatária
mountain bikebírota montāna
muro del suonorepágula soni (
naïfingénuus; natīva simplicitate pictus
narcosisopor artificiōsus
navigazione spazialesiderālis navigátio
'ndranghetaBruttianorum praedōnum grex
neofascismorenovātus fascálium motus
nettezza urbanacívica mundítia
news looknova se gerendi et vestiendi rátio
night-clubtaberna nocturna
nursepuerorum custos
nylonmatéria plástica nailonensis
oblòfenestēlla orbiculāta
odontoiatramédicus dentárius
ombrelloumbella; umbráculum
ómnibuslaophorīum; autocinētum laóphorum
oncoterapiatumōrum curationes
OnuUnitarum Nationum Coetus
operazione bancarianegótium argentárium
operazione chirurgicaséctio chirúrgica
ora lavorativahora negotiōsa
ora legalehora legítima
orafoáurifex (-icis)
ore di puntatempus máximae frequéntiae
orologio ad acquahorológium aquátile
ottomanaTúrcicus léctulus
overdoseimmódica medicamenti stupefactīvi iniéctio
ovoviaovāta vehícula funália
pagellapunctorum summa
pallonefollis (-is); harpastum; sphaera
palombarourinātor (ōris)
pancarrépanis quadratus
pan di Spagnadulcis panis Hispánicus
pandoropanis áureus
panettoneMediolanensis placenta
panforteSenensis placenta
panificiosedes fornáriae exercendae
paninotecapastillorum fartōrum taberna
pannalactis flos
pantofolasólea; crépida
parà, paracadutistamiles decíduus
paracaduteumbrella descensória
passamanománuum fulcīmen
passe-partoutcommūnis clavis
pastasciuttatubulati pastilli
pastificiopastae conficiendae officīna
patatinaglóbulus solaniānus
patatracsúbitum patrimónii naufrágium
patente di guidadiplōma vehículo automatário ducendo
páttinoferrāta sólea
peluchedensus mollisque villus
penna a sferasphaerígraphum (-i)
penninocálami apex
pensionea munéribus vacátio
pentitismomalefactōrum paeniténtia
percentualecentésima (pars)
pericolositàcondício periculōsa
pescamalum Pérsicum
pesce d'aprileludificátio Calendarum Aprílium
pesetanummus Hispanus
pianoforteclavicýmbalum (-i)
piantagranemolestiārum fictor
piccione viaggiatorecolumba internúntia
picniccénula subdivālis
pizzaplacenta compressa; placéntula
pizzicheriataberna salsária
plaidstrágula laculāta
playboyiúvenis voluptárius
pompelmocitrum grande
ponchopáenula Americana
popcornmáizae grana tosta (pl.)
portacenerevásculum cinerárium
portasaponetheca saponária
portavalorinummorum gestātor
Portovinum Portucalense
posteggiovehiculorum státio
pot-pourricarnes oleraque vária
privacyvita privata
prognosipraeiudicatus morbi cursus
prospettivaprospectus; iudicandi rátio
prostataurēthrae glándula
psicologohumani ánimi investigator
pubpública potória taberna
pubblicistascriptōrum vulgator
pulizia etnicapurgátio géntica
punchcálida alcohólica pótio
punkpunkianae catervae ássecla
purèpultícula tuberosa
putschsubitánea rerum convérsio
quadro clinicomorbi descriptio
quarantenasegregátio quadraginta diērum
questionariopercontatiōnum index
quizaenigma (-ătis)
raccordo anulareorbitalis via viarum coniunctrix
racketillícita pecúniae exáctio
radarradioëléctricum instrumentum detectórium
radioamatoreradiophóniae operator voluptárius
radiointervistaradiophónica percontátio
raffreddorecápitis gravedo; pituíta (laborare)
raggio laserrádius laséricus
ragùius cárneum
raidincúrsio aërináutica (... subitánea publicorum custodum)
rallyautocinetorum certamen
ranchpráedium rei pecuáriae curandae
raptusímpetus imperiōsus
rasoiotonsórius culter
razziale (odio)(ódium) phyléticum
razzorádius ígnifer
rebusdepictum aenigma
reciotoVeronense vinum
referendumad pópulum provocátio
refrain (ritornello)intercalaris versus
refusotypográphicum mendum
reinserimentoiterata insértio
relaxrelaxátio (-onis)
residence (house)diaeta deversória disiuncta
ressastipátio tumultuōsa
restauranttaberna refectória
rete stradaleviárius intextus
retrovisorespéculum retroscópicum
ribasso (dei viveri)annōnae laxátio
ricattoviolenta exáctio
ricevuta di ritornoperlatae epístulae núntius
riciclaggiopecúniae male partae collocátio
ricottacáseus secundárius
ricoverohospítium; sanatīva custódia
rifugio alpinohospitíolum montanum
rimborsopecúniae reddítio
rimunerativoquaestuōsus (-a, -um)
ringpugilatórium suggestum
ripresa economicaincrementum oeconómicum
ripresa fotograficaimpréssio photográphica
riscattoprétium (pro redemptione)
rodéospectáculum equestre
rosticceriaassōrum taberna
rouletterótula (lúdicra)
rubinetto epitónion (-ii)
rugbyludus follis ovāti
rumrhómium; sícera náutica
sabotaggioocculta evérsio
sacco da montagnasaccipérium dorsuāle
safariAfricana venátio
salamino (salsiccia)botellus (-i)
salassosánguinis detráctio
salatinocrústulum sale condītum
salumificiosalsamentária officīna
salvadanaiotheca nummária
sangríapótio mixta Hispánica
scadenzadies praestitūtus
scaldabagnobálnei caldárium
scaldavivandeferculōrum calidárium
scappatellaiuvenīle errātum
scaricabarilicríminis translátio
scarpieraarmaríolum cálceis servandis
scenatairae effúsio
sci (corsa di)nartátio (-ōnis)
sciatorenartator (-ōris)
scientificitàscientialis rátio
scienza delle finanzenummáriae rei disciplina
scioperooperistítium; cessátio ab ópere
scippoevúlsio furtífica
sciroppatomulsō condītus
scontoprétii deminútio
scontrinoschédula emptória
scotchvíschium Scóticum; taeníola glutinatīva
scuolabusdiscipulorum laophorīum
sedativomedicamentum mitigatórium
sedia a sdraioséllula reclīnis
sedile ribaltabilesella plicátilis
segreto epistolareopertum litterarum
self-controlsui moderátio
shockcollapsus gravis
shortsbrevíssimae bracae
sigarettafístula nicotiāna
sigarobacillum nicotianum
sinistratodetrimento affectus
sketchbrevis áctio cómica
slipparvum subligáculum
slogansententíola praeconiālis
smogfumus et nébula
snack barthermopólium potórium et gustatórium
snobistahomo affectatus
solidarietàconsociāta voluntas
soubrettepraecípua scáenica actrix
souvenirmemoriale (-is)
spacciatorevénditor clandestīnus
spaghettopasta vermiculata
spezzatinocaro minutātim dissecta
sportlúdicra córporis exercitátio
spotintercalatum laudatīvum núntium
sprayliquor nubilógenus
sprintextrēma accelerátio
staffcooperatorum coetus
standtabernáculum exhibitórium
stockcúmulus mércium
stopiussum sistendi
strudelpomorum placenta
sympósiumdoctorum virorum conventus
tabaccotabācum; nicotiāna herba
tabùsacra interdíctio; sollemne interdictum
tailleurvestis bipertīta
tangentelargítio quaestuōsa
tangenzialesuburbana velócior via
tappabuchiabséntium vicárius
taxiautocinētum meritórium
theāna pótio
tea-roomconclāve theárium
telecronacarelátio televisífica
telefonatatelephónicum collóquium
telenovelafábula televisífica
termocopertastrágulum calefactórium
terroristatromócrates (-ae)
thermoslagoena calefactória
timerinstrumentum témpori praestituēndo
tocaiHungáricum vinum
tortellinopastillus tórtilis
tourcircúitus (-us)
trade markergastérii nota
traffico stradaleviarum frequéntia
trampúblicus currus eléctricus
traveller's chequemandatum nummárium periegéticum
trustsocietatum bonis gignendis impérium
turistaperiegētes (-ae)
tutaindumentum bracātum
ultràextremārum pártium ássecla
umanistaártium liberálium cultor
umoristafestivus homo
valoreprétium; virtus; auctóritas; praestántia
valzerchorēa Vindobonensis
vigile del fuocosiphonárius
vipamplíssimus vir
viveurhomo voluptárius
vodkaválida pótio Slávica
vongolacónchula decussata
vuoto d'ariademinútio subitánea áëris
wagon-litcurrus dormitórius
wagon-restaurantcurrus cenatórius
week-endéxiens hebdómada
würstelbotellus (Germánicus; Austríacus)
zainosaccíperum dorsuale
zoosafārivenátio Africana.


[1] Verba novata magnam partem depromuntur ex operoso ópere cui títulus Léxicon Recentis Latinitatis cura et stúdio Óperis Fundati «Latínitas» ante áliquot annos foras dato.